Indirect Object Pronouns


Direct-object pronouns are those pronouns that represent the nouns directly acted upon by the verb.


Indirect-object pronouns stand for the noun that is the recipient of the verb's action.


An indirect object is usually a person ( animal or thing) receiving the direct object. 


The indirect object tells us “where” something is going and that “something” must be a direct object.


The indirect object tells us "To whom?" or "For whom? Something is being done, and that something


An indirect object is the person ( animal or thing) affected by the action but not acted directly upon.


Always the answer to the question “To whom?” or “For whom?”  is your indirect object.


The indirect object is a word or phrase that informs to whom or for whom something is being done. 


It can be a person, an animal, or a thing.


If there is an indirect object in a sentence, you can change it with  an indirect object pronoun.


Most of the Spanish indirect object pronouns are basically the same as the ones used by direct object pronouns 


with the exception of the third person ( singular and plural). 


but the trick is how to use them in a sentence, since they take different positions.


In negative sentences, the negative word comes directly before the first pronoun.


No te la compro (I didn't buy it for you).


indirect object pronouns are the replacements for indirect objects, which are always personal nouns.


There is no differentiation between the masculine indirect object pronoun him and the feminine her.


 The pronoun "le" is used as the indirect object pronoun for both genders (he, her, usted), and the same is for "les" ( ellos, ellas, ustedes)


A clarification can be placed either at the beginning of the sentence or after the verb to indicate the gender or the specific person. 


To create that clarification, the preposition "a" is followed by a subject pronoun.  


A él, a ella, or a usted


or a  noun can be used after the preposition "a" to specify exactly whom the indirect object is. 


A María, a Juan


The clarification is provided in Spanish by using the preposition "a + noun or personal subject pronoun. 


It is important to remember that in Spanish, anytime that an indirect object is expressed, the pronoun must be present


even if the indirect object is expressed in some other way (i.e., prepositional clause).

subject indirect object direct object
singular yo me to me me
tu te to you ( singular)(familiar) te
usted. Ud. le / se lo
el to him, it
ella to her la
plural nosotros / as nos to us nos
vosotros / as os to you (plural) os
ustedes . Uds. les /se
ellos to them los
ellas las

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